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混酒会导致宿醉吗?

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原文地址:http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20140428-does-wine-beer-huge-hangover

原创翻译:龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com 翻译:蓝色幻想

正文翻译:

Does mixing alcoholic drinks cause hangovers?

混酒会导致宿醉吗?

Many people believe that mixingwine, beer and spirits causes nasty hangovers. Are they right? Claudia Hammondstudies the evidence

很多人感觉红酒、啤酒、白酒混着喝会宿醉得厉害。是这样吗?ClaudiaHammond进行了相关钻研。

"Grape or grain, but never the twain." So runsthe old folk wisdom that advises against drinking wine or beer on the samenight. It is far from uncommon to hear people who have woken up feeling sick,dehydrated and with a splitting headache blaming their hangovers on havingunwisely mixed their drinks.

谚语:"果酒、谷酒,不要混酒。"这句说的便是不要又喝红酒又喝啤酒。常常有人诉苦由于混着喝早上起来宿醉得厉害,口干舌燥、头疼欲裂。

Then there are the theories about the order in which toconsume different tipples. One version suggests: "Wine before beer and you'llfeel queer. Beer before wine and you'll feel fine." Or is it the other wayround? After a couple of drinks it's not always easy to remember. All of whichbegs the question of how reliable these sayings are. Is there any evidencebeyond the anecdotal that drinking wine followed by beer or vice versa makeshangovers worse?

因而有各类饮酒顺序的理论。此中一个是"先喝红酒再喝啤酒,你会不惬意。先喝啤酒再喝红酒,感到还好。"

A review of previous research published in 2000 confirmsthat the causes of the main symptoms of hangovers are dehydration, changes inthe levels of hormones such as aldosterone and cortisol, and the toxic effectsof alcohol itself. In addition there's evidence that the immune system isdisrupted and that this could be the cause of the headache, the nausea and thefatigue.

根据2000年颁发的查询造访申报可以知道宿醉的主要症状孕育发生的缘故原由是脱水,醛固酮、皮质醇等激素变更,以及酒精本身的毒性。别的还有证据注解因免疫系统受到滋扰而导致头疼、恶心、疲惫。

The first of the two main ingredients of a drink that affect the severity of ahangover is obvious. The higher the alcohol content, and the faster you drinkit, the worse the hangover. This is however just an average. The same quantityof alcohol does not always result in the same severity of hangover. Many reportthat they don't get hangovers and no one quite knows why. In a study of youngDanes on holiday, almost a third of those who consumed at least 12 units ofalcohol (roughly equivalent to four pints of lager or four 250ml glasses ofwine) avoided hangovers.

酒影响宿醉严重度两个重要身分很显着便是酒精浓度和饮酒速率,度数越高、喝得越快,宿醉越厉害。平日是这样,但等量的酒精,宿醉不必然都一样严重。很多人说他们没有宿醉,但不知道为什么。一个项钻研显示丹麦年轻人假期中喝了至少12个单位酒精的(大年夜概相称于四品脱的德国啤酒或四杯250ml红酒),有三分之一没有宿醉。

Many drinkers report that they don't get hangovers at all,but it's unclear why (Thinkstock)

很多饮酒的人说他们不会宿醉,但不清楚缘故原由。(Thinkstock网)

Mixing drinks needn't necessarily increase the overallamount of alcohol consumed, but it may do with cocktails. If combining three orfour measures of spirits alongside other ingredients, a throbbing head and drythroat is probably just the result of consuming more alcohol in total.

混酒不必然会前进总体的酒精含量,但鸡尾酒可能便是这样。混杂三到四个量杯的烈酒以及其它配料,这样偏头疼喉咙干很可能便是因为酒精总体摄入量增添。

Beyond the ethanol that triggers intoxication, the otherkey ingredients that affect hangovers are what the beverage industry callscongeners. These are the other substances produced during fermentation, such asacetone, acetaldehyde, fusel oil and the best-known, tannins, which give darkerdrinks their colour and part of their flavour. Bourbon whisky, for example,contains 37 times the quantity of congeners as vodka.

除了酒精会引起醉酒外,另一个影响宿醉的主要因素是啤酒业中所说的同源物。它们孕育发生于啤酒发酵历程中,如丙酮、乙醛、杂醇油以及闻名的单宁,单宁肯提升深色酒的颜色及其风味。波本威士忌的同源物含量是伏特加的37倍。

To find out the effect of these substances on hangoverseverity, researchers in the USrecruited university students who were regular drinkers, without alcoholproblems. On different nights they were given either bourbon and cola, vodkaand cola or a placebo which consisted of cola mixed with tonic, with a fewdrops of either bourbon or vodka to make it taste similar to the real stuff.They drank anything between three and six drinks, however much was enough togive them a concentration of 0.11g of alcohol per 100ml of breath. This wouldput them two to five times over the drink drive limit, depending which countrythey were in. They then spent the night in the clinic and were woken at 7am forbreakfast before taking part in a battery of tests. For this they were paid arather generous $450. The researchers found the students who drank bourbonrated their hangovers as worse, but interestingly they performed just as wellon tasks such as reaction time tests.

为了弄清这些物质对宿醉严重度的影响,美国钻研员招募了一些常常喝酒并且没有酒精相关问题的大年夜门生。在不合的晚上,让他们喝旁波威士忌混可乐,伏特加混可乐,或者可乐混奎宁水再加上几滴旁波威士忌或伏特加,喝起来类似真酒的对比剂。他们喝三到六份酒,时代随意喝,喝够每100ml呼吸中酒精浓度0.11g,比醉驾标准高两到五倍,这看详细国家。之后在诊所住宿,7点起床吃早饭,然后参加一系列测试。他们可获得$450的丰盛待遇。钻研员发明喝旁波威士忌的门生感觉宿醉更严重,但有趣的是他们在反映光阴测试等环节中体现一样。

Whisky contains high levels of 'congeners', which can makehangovers worse than paler drinks (Thinkstock)

威士忌中的"同源物"含量高,因而比浅色酒更轻易宿醉。(Thinkstock网)

Clear drinks such as white rum, vodka and gin tend to causefewer and less severe hangovers because they contain relatively low levels ofcongeners. Perhaps those who mix their drinks are more likely to choose adark-coloured drink containing higher levels of these substances simply byvirtue of their wider drinking range, but again it isn't the mixing in itselfthat causes the problem.

像白朗姆酒、伏特加、金酒这类清澈的酒更不轻易让人感觉严重宿醉,这些酒同源物的含量少些。可能酒混着喝的人大年夜都邑选上一种深色同源物含量高的酒,由于他们喝的酒的种类多。这再次阐明不是由于混着饮酒导致宿醉。

No scientist seems to have done the perfectcounter-balanced study where people are randomly assigned to drink beerfollowed by wine or wine followed by beer. But perhaps it's not the grape orthe grain that matters, but the effect that the strength of those drinks has onjudgement. Beer is only between a third and half the strength of wine, sostarting on it leads to less intoxication if followed by the stronger stuff.But if a person starts on wine or spirits, then their judgement may be impairedenough to drink more heavily later. There's certainly evidence that people arenot good at judging their own drunkenness. At low levels people overestimatethe amount of alcohol in our blood, but after a few drinks they start tounderestimate it.

彷佛还没有科学家进行完备的比较实验,让介入者随机先喝啤酒再喝红酒或者先喝红酒再喝啤酒。啤酒度数只有红酒的1/3到1/2,因而先喝啤酒再喝烈点的酒对照不轻易醉。而假如先喝红酒或烈酒,可能会影响判断力,后面喝更多。有证据注解人很难判断自己醉了没有。喝的不多时会高估血液中的酒精含量,喝多了后就变成低估了。

So, the existing evidence suggests that hangovers can't beblamed on mixing drinks. It's probably down to the high congener count of thebooze, or over-drinking. As for hangover cures, scientists have looked intothose too, and the British Medical Journal published a review of trials ofeverything from borage to artichoke and glucose to prickly pears in 2005. Thebad news for drinkers is that none of them work.

总之今朝的证据注解宿醉不能归因于混酒,应该是因为酗酒后同源物含量高。科学家也查询造访了若何治疗宿醉。2005年英国医疗杂志颁发了宿醉治疗试验的锦集,涵纳万千,从琉璃苣到洋蓟,从葡萄糖到神仙掌果。不幸地是没有一种有效。

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